Sewage released from lakeside development can introduce nutrients and micropollutants that can restructure aquatic ecosystems. Lake Baikal, the world’s most ancient, biodiverse, and voluminous freshwater lake, has been experiencing localized sewage pollution from lakeside settlements. Nearby increasing filamentous algal abundance suggests benthic communities are responding to localized pollution. We surveyed 40-km of Lake Baikal’s southwestern shoreline from 19 to 23 August 2015 for sewage indicators, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and microplastics, with colocated periphyton, macroinvertebrate, stable isotope, and fatty acid samplings. The data are structured in a tidy format (a tabular arrangement familiar to limnologists) to encourage reuse. Unique identifiers corresponding to sampling locations are retained throughout all data files to facilitate interoperability among the dataset’s 150+ variables. For Lake Baikal studies, these data can support continued monitoring and research efforts. For global studies of lakes, these data can help characterize sewage prevalence and ecological consequences of anthropogenic disturbance across spatial scales.